My article "Dmitri Ivanenko" (in honor of the 110th year anniversary), Science Newsletter, Issue 1 (2014) 16-17, has been published (#) (see its text below) and has been reproduced in arXiv: 1607.03828
Dmitri Ivanenko (29.07.1904 – 30.12.1994), professor of
was one of the great theoreticians of XX century, an author of the proton-neutron
model of atomic nucleus (1932). Moscow
D. Ivanenko was born on July 29,
In 1929 – 31, Dmitri Ivanenko worked at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, being the first director of its theoretical division; Lev Landau followed him in 1932 – 37. Paskual Jordan, Victor Wieskopf, Felix Bloch (Nobel laureate in 1952) and Paul Dirac (Nobel Laureate in 1933) visited D. Ivanenko in Kharkiv. In Kharkiv, Ivanenko organized the 1st Soviet theoretical conference (1929) and the first soviet journal "Physikalische Zeitschrift der Sowjetunion" in foreign language (1932).
After returning to
Ivanenko’s success pushed forward the nuclear physics in the
The realization of Ivanenko's far-reaching plans and hopes was interrupted, however. In 1935 he was arrested in connection with the Sergey Kirov affair. Exile to
Dmitri Ivanenko made the fundamental contribution to many areas of nuclear physics, field theory and gravitation theory.
In 1928, Ivanenko and Landau developed the theory of fermions as skew-symmetric tensors in contrast with the Dirac spinor model. Their theory, widely known as the Ivanenko -- Landau – Kahler theory, is not equivalent to Dirac's one in the presence of a gravitational field, and only it describes fermions in contemporary lattice field theory.
In 1929, Ivanenko and Fock generalized the Dirac equation and described parallel displacement of spinors in a curved space-time (the famous Fock – Ivanenko coefficients). Nobel laureate Abdus Salam called it the first gauge field theory.
In 1930, Ambartsumian and Ivanenko suggested the hypothesis of creation and annihilation of massive particles which became the corner stone of contemporary quantum field theory.
In 1934 Dmitri Ivanenko and Igor Tamm (Nobel Laureate in 1958) suggested the first non-phenomenological theory of paired electron-neutrinor nuclear forces. They made the significant assumption that interaction can be undergone by an exchange of massive particles. Based on their model, Nobel laureate Hideki Yukawa developed his meson theory.
In 1938, Ivanenko proposed a non-linear generalization of Dirac's equation. Based on this generalization, W. Heisenberg and he developed the unified nonlinear field theory in 50th.
In 1944, Dmitri Ivanenko and Isaak Pomeranchuk predicted the phenomenon of synchrotron radiation given off by relativistic electrons in a betatron. This radiation was soon discovered by American experimenters D. Bluitt (1946) and H. Pollock (1947). Synchrotron radiation possesses a number of very particular properties which provide its wide applications. In particular, neutron stars also are sources of this type radiation. Classical theory of synchrotron radiation was developed by Dmitri Ivanenko in collaboration with Arseny. Sokolov in 1948, and independently by Julian Schwinger (Nobel Laureate in 1965). For their work on synchrotron radiation, D. Ivanenko, A. Sokolov and I. Pomeranchuk were awarded the Stalin Prize in 1950.
Two of D. Ivanenko's and A. Sokolov's monographs "Classical Field Theory" and "Quantum Field Theory" were published at the beginning of the 50th. “Classical field theory” was the first contemporary book on field theory where, for instance, the technique of generalized functions was applied. Nobel laureate Ilya Prigogine referred to it as his text-book.
In 1956, D. Ivanenko developed the theory of hypernuclei discovered by Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski in 1952.
At the beginning of the 1960's, D. Ivanenko did intensive scientific and organizational work on the development and coordination of gravitation research in the
Theoretical physics in the
The scientific style of Dmitri Ivanenko was characterized by great interest in ideas of frontiers in science where these ideas were based on strong mathematical methods or experiment.
It should be noted that seven Nobel Laureates: P.A.M. Dirac, H. Yukawa, N.Bohr, I. Prigogine, S. Ting, M. Gell-Mann, G. 't Hooft wrote their famous inscriptions with a chalk on the walls of Ivanenko's office in