G.Sardanashvily, Geometric formulation of non-autonomous mechanics, Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 10 (2013) 1350061 #
We address classical and quantum mechanics in a general setting of arbitrary time-dependent transformations. Classical non-relativistic mechanics is formulated as a particular field theory on smooth fibre bundles over a time axis R. Connections on these bundles describe reference frames. Quantum time-dependent mechanics is phrased in geometric terms of Banach and Hilbert bundles and connections on these bundles. A quantization scheme speaking this language is geometric quantization.
The technique of symplectic manifolds is well known to provide the adequate Hamiltonian formulation of autonomous mechanics. Its realistic example is a mechanical system whose configuration space is a manifold M and whose phase space is the cotangent bundle T*M of M provided with the canonical symplectic form
on T*M. Any autonomous Hamiltonian
system locally is of this type.
However, this geometric formulation of autonomous mechanics is not extended to mechanics under time-dependent transformations because the symplectic form
Om fails to be invariant
under these transformations. As a palliative variant, one has developed time-dependent
mechanics on a configuration space Q=RxM where R is the time axis. Its
phase space RxT*M is provided
with the pull-back presymplectic form. However, this presymplectic form also is
broken by time-dependent transformations.
We address non-relativistic mechanics in a case of arbitrary time-dependent transformations. Its configuration space is a fibre bundle Q->R. Its velocity space is the first order jet manifold of sections of Q->R. A phase space is the vertical cotangent bundle V*Q of Q->R.
This formulation of non-relativistic mechanics is similar to that of classical field theory on fibre bundles over a base of dimension >
1. A difference between mechanics and field
theory however lies in the fact that connections on bundles over R
are flat, and they fail to be dynamic variables, but describe reference frames.
Note that relativistic mechanics is adequately formulated as particular classical string theory of one-dimensional submanifolds.
Time-dependent integrable Hamiltonian systems and mechanics with time-dependent parameters also are considered.