G. Sardanashvily, “Saarbrucken ,
2012)

**" (Lambert Academic Publishing,***Lectures on Differential Geometry of Modules and Rings. Application to Quantum Theory***#**
Geometry of classical mechanics and field theory mainly is differential
geometry of finite-dimensional smooth manifolds and fibre bundles.

At the same time, the standard mathematical language of quantum
mechanics and field theory has been long far from geometry. In the last twenty
years, the incremental development of new physical ideas in quantum theory has
called into play advanced geometric techniques, based on the deep interplay
between algebra, geometry and topology.

Geometry in quantum systems speaks mainly the algebraic language of
rings, modules and sheaves due to the fact that basic ingredients in the
differential calculus and differential geometry of smooth manifolds (except
non-linear differential operators) can be restarted in a pure algebraic way.

Let

*X*be a smooth manifold and*C(X)*a ring of smooth real functions on*X*. A key point is that, by virtue of the well-known Serre--Swan theorem, a*C(X)*-module is finitely generated and projective if and only if it is isomorphic to a module of sections of some smooth vector bundle over*X*. Moreover, this isomorphism is a categorial equivalence. Therefore, differential geometry of smooth vector bundles can be adequately formulated in algebraic terms of a ring*C(X)*, its derivations and the Koszul connections.
In a general setting, let

*K*be a commutative ring,*A*an arbitrary commutative*K*-ring, and*P*,*Q*some*A*-modules. The*K*-linear*Q*-valued differential operators on*P*can be defined. The representative objects of functors*Q-> Dif(P,Q)*are jet modules*JP*of*P*. Using the first order jet module*J^1P*, one also restarts the notion of a connection on an*A*-module*P*.
As was mentioned above, if

*P*is a*C(X)*-module of sections of a smooth vector bundle*Y-> X*, we come to the familiar notions of a linear differential operator on Y, the jets of sections of Y-> X and a linear connection on Y-> X.
In quantum theory, Banach and Hilbert manifolds, Hilbert bundles and
bundles of

*C**-algebras over smooth manifolds are considered. Their differential geometry also is formulated as geometry of modules, in particular,*C(X)*-modules.
Let

*K*be a commutative ring,*A*a (commutative or non-commutative)*K*-ring, and*Z(A)*the center of*A*. Derivations of*A*constitute a Lie*K*-algebra*DA*. Let us consider the Chevalley-Eilenberg complex of*K*-multilinear morphisms of*DA*to*A*, seen as a*DA*-module. Its subcomplex*O*(A)*of*Z(A)*-multilinear morphisms is a differential graded algebra, called the Chevalley-Eilenberg differential calculus over*A*. If*A*is an**-ring***R**C(X)*of smooth real functions on a smooth manifold*X*, the module*DC(X)*of its derivations is a Lie algebra of vector fields on*X*, and the Chevalley-Eilenberg differential calculus over*C(X)*is exactly an algebra of exterior forms on a manifold $X$ so that the Chevalley-Eilenberg coboundary operator*d*coincides with an exterior differential, i.e.,*O*(A)*is the familiar de Rham complex. In a general setting, one therefore can think of elements of the Chevalley-Eilenberg differential calculus over an algebra*A*as being differential forms over*A*.
Similarly, the differential calculus over a Grassmann-graded commutative
ring is constructed. This is the case of supergeometry. In supergeometry,
connections on graded manifolds and supervector bundles are defined as those on
graded modules over a graded commutative ring and graded local-ringed spaces.

Note that a Grassmann-graded commutative ring is a particular
non-commutative ring. However, the definition of its derivations differs from
the non-commutative Leibniz rule. Therefore, supergeometry is not particular
non-commutative geometry.

Non-commutative geometry also is developed as a generalization of the
calculus in commutative rings of smooth functions. In a general setting, any
non-nommutative

*K*-ring*A*over a commutative ring*K*can be called into play. One can consider the above mentioned Chevalley-Eilenberg differential calculus over*A*. However, the definition of differential operators on modules over commutative rings fails to be straightforwardly extended to the non-commutative ones. A key point is that*A*-module morphisms fail to be zero order differential operators if*A*is non-commutative. In this case, several nonequivalent definitions of differential operators have been suggested. Accordingly, there are also different definitions of a connection on modules over a non-commutative ring.
The present book aims to summarize the relevant material on the
differential calculus and differential geometry on modules and rings. Some
basic applications to quantum models are considered.

For the sake of convenience of the reader, several topics on cohomology
are compiled in Appendix.

The book is based on the graduate and post graduate courses of lectures
given at the Department of Theoretical Physics of Moscow State University (Russia ) and the Department of Mathematics and
Physics of University of Camerino (Italy ). It addresses to a wide
audience of mathematicians, mathematical physicists and theoreticians.

**Contents**

**1 Commutative geometry**: 1.1 Commutative algebra, 1.2 Diﬀerential operators on modules and rings, 1.3 Connections on modules and rings, 1.4 Diﬀerential calculus over a commutative ring, 1.5 Local-ringed spaces, 1.6 Diﬀerential geometry of C(X)-modules, 1.7 Connections on local-ringed spaces.

**2 Geometry of quantum systems**: 2.1 Geometry of Banach manifolds, 2.2 Geometry of Hilbert manifolds, 2.3 Hilbert and C*-algebra bundles, 2.4 Connections on Hilbert and C*--algebra bundles, 2.5 Instantwise quantization, 2.6

**3 Supergeometry**: 3.1 Graded tensor calculus, 3.2 Graded diﬀerential calculus and connections, 3.3 Geometry of graded manifolds, 3.4 Supermanifolds, 3.5 Supervector bundles, 3.6 Superconnections.

**4 Non-commutative geometry**: 4.1 Modules over C*-algebras, 4.2 Non-commutative diﬀerential calculus, 4.3 Diﬀerential operators in non-commutative geometry, 4.4 Connections in non-commutative geometry, 4.5 Matrix geometry, 4.6 Connes’ non-commutative geometry, 4.7 Diﬀerential calculus over Hopf algebras.

**5 Appendix. Cohomology**: 5.1 Cohomology of complexes, 5.2 Cohomology of Lie algebras, 5.3 Sheaf cohomology.

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